Abstract: Inverters, which are installed in photovoltaic (PV) power systems, are key devices to turn output direct current (DC) of PV arrays to alternative current (AC) with a specific waveform required by power load. With their widespread application and increasing large-scale of PV power systems in utility power network, the disturbances from load and line faults or external interferences often cause serious problems in inverters, operating in a safe and steady condition and inverters control problems on suppressing the disturbances have always been focused by the industry and academic circles. Many efforts and published contributions have been devoted to improve the flexible performance of PV-connected inverters. A technique to utilize favorable circumstances of proportional integral derivative (PID) and Repetitive Control (RC) controller implemented that helping PID controller diminishing mistake from last period while as yet utilizing PID controller for handling with noise and high error.
Keywords: Renewable Energy Resources; DC Component; Total Harmonic Distortion (THD); Photovoltaic Power Systems; Repetitive Control
Abstract:Kaolin is one of the most common mineral and is generally known as China clay, that has formed from the chemical weathering of rocks in hot and moist climates. The most crucial element in the raw kaolin is alumina (Al2O3). It is an important material, used in the metallurgical industries for the production of variety of ceramics, alloys and the catalyst such as zeolite which is utilize in petroleum processing side. In Pakistan various industries spend high cost on importing the gamma alumina from other countries. Synthesis of alumina from indigenous kaolin plays an important role in the economic development of Pakistan. The current work is concentrated on Synthesis of gamma alumina from Nagar Parker raw Kaolin that is available in abundance and is not yet realized effectively. The Nagar Parker kaolin was beneﬁciated, metakaolinized, dealuminated, crystallized and calcined to obtain the gamma alumina and characterized via XRF, XRD and SEM. The thermal treatment of Al(OH)3 was carried out at various temperature ranges i.e. 300, 600, and 900°C and the fully formed gamma alumina was obtained at the temperature of 900°C. The synthesis of gamma alumina is commercially feasible and substitute of conventional Bayer process. This method also provides an alternative of the ecological pollution generated via Bayer method.
Keywords: Gamma Alumina; Kaolin; Nano Material; Nagar Parker; Environmental Friendly
Abstract: The new research domain researchers are working on is underwater networks and this topic is taking boost day by day in the research community. Land based approaches of network structure from detection to cutting-edge routing are all well recognized. It is due to the inimitable limitations of operating in an environment of underwater, several of these tried methods need alterations if they function at all. Peer detection and low-level networking have been apportioned by earlier research. In this paper we described and evaluated eight conceivable routing systems with diverse system-acquaintance necessities. It is shown that with a slight set of statistics it is conceivable to attain near-optimal consequences with energy costs significantly lower than centralized optimal algorithms. Further all the three techniques are compared with each other so that a better algorithm can be observed in time of practical implementation.
Keywords: Wireless Underwater Networks; Acoustic-Centric Algorithms; Radio-Centric Algorithms; Precoding; Simulation
Abstract: Brain Computer interfacing (BCI) is an innovation that is just about four decades old and it was created exclusively to develop and improving the effect of neuro prosthetics. In any case, in the ongoing occasions, with the commercialization of non-intrusive electroencephalogram (EEG) headsets, the innovation has seen a wide assortment of uses like home automation, wheelchair control, vehicle directing and so forth. One of the most recent created applications is the mind-controlled quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle. These applications, how-ever, dont require a rapid reaction and give agreeable outcomes when standard grouping techniques like Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLPC). Issues are confronted when there is a prerequisite for rapid control on account of settled wing unmanned flying vehicles where such strategies are rendered problematic because of the low speed of characterization. Such an application requires the framework to group information at high speeds with the end goal to hold the controllability of the vehicle. This paper proposes a novel strategy for grouping which utilizes a blend of Basic Spatial Worldview and Straight Discriminant Examination that gives an enhanced characterization precision continuously. A non-straight SVM based grouping strategy has likewise been talked about. Further, this paper examines the usage of the proposed strategy on a settled wing and VTOL unmanned aeronautical vehicles.
Keywords: UAV; Brain; Unmanned Aerial Vehicle; Brain Computer Interfacing
Abstract: : Kaolin is one of the most significant and valued products which is developed under hot weathering rocks and slightly wet climate tropical rain forest is example of that kind of climate. The most important mineral in kaolin are kaolinite and halloysite which has the composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4 while halloysite has the similar composition but excess molecule of water Al2Si2O5 (OH)4•2H2O. Due to increase in demand of filtration in molten metal industry, the demand of filters has been increased. Due to tremendous increase, many industries pay heavy taxes and money to buy equipment’s and material from other countries that had additional finical burden on country economy. Preparation of indigenous porous body will help to support the economy of Pakistan. This study has been focused on preparation and characterization of porous indigenous material from Nagarparker Kaolin. Kaolin samples were collected from Nagarparker mining sites. Chemical analysis were carried out of indigenous kaolin, porous ceramic bodies; using kaolin, saw-dust, charcoal, millet and poppy seeds (khas khas) as pore former. Batch formulation of kaolin samples were formed into green bodies and fired at 1150oC at controlled rate. The samples with Millet exhibit surface cracks and low thermal shock after firing. A control batch process using Saw-dust, charcoal and poppy seeds (khas khas) showed uniform surface characteristics with pores, high strength, thermal stability and no surface cracks thereby confirming the viability of process module. Apparent porosity as high as 20%-41% has been calculated. It was concluded that the porous ceramic body is environment friendly and advantage of the material availability indigenously.
Keywords: Filtration; Kaolin; Pore formers; Porous body; Molten metal; Sustainability; Environmental friendly
Abstract: Coal is available globally in abundance and is a major source of energy in many countries. Lignite coal is one type of coal that emit pollutants and have adverse impacts on environment. As Pakistan also have huge deposits of lignite coal. It is necessary to utilize coal in environmentally friendly manner. In this research, efforts have been taken to prepare low emission coal briquettes. Lignite coal from Lakhara mine in Sindh, Pakistan. Waste plastic what is more, bio waste resources (PET containers, polythene sacks, sawdust, rice husk) are utilized. Materials were carbonized, crushed and utilized in different ratios with limestone residue and guar powder as binder to create Solid fuel briquettes. The briquettes were portrayed by testing for heat content, moisture level, volatile and ash content utilizing proximate and ultimate examination. Briquettes created by this strategy are great choice to fuel wood for open air and indoor cooking and for alleviation of deforestation, desertification, and natural contamination and debasement. Reusing of the plastic leftover into refuse derived fuel by assimilation in these bio coal briquettes demonstrates extraordinary assurance and could be considered as a piece of waste administration choices particularly in the underdeveloped nations.
Keywords: Lignite coal; Briquettes; Ultimate and Proximate Analysis; Biomass; Plastic waste
Abstract: Analysis is most typical and challenging tasks in any industry specially education and learning field. All educational institutions and organizations have taken deep research to modernized student performance evaluation method and procedure to get better university ranking and student’s placements. The major mediums of collecting data are admission and placements process. Currently, they are based on conventional model where analysis depends upon statistical approach to segregate student’s marks. It basically not full reflection of students performance, so we proposed a model which uses data mining unsupervised techniques by implementing K-mean algorithm to get better reflection of their performance with future support of automation . We applied methodology on different dataset to help in knowledge discovery.
Keywords: Data mining; Supervised Learning Approach; Unsupervised Learning approach; K-means; Lloyds Algorithm
Abstract: Data mining techniques are utilized to work on huge volumes of data to find hidden patterns and relationships between data that is helpful in decision making. It provides powerful techniques for various fields including education. With the help of some valuable tools data mining techniques discover a pattern. This paper proposes model that predicts student’s academic performance from large available dataset by using classification techniques like decision tree and naive bayes. The experiment result shows that naive bayes is best technique among other by revising high accuracy 77%. The information extracted from prediction model will be used by instructors to identify student category that either student belong to which category good, average or poor with the help of our research, we could have provided educational institutions with a way of reducing number of failures.
Keywords: Data mining techniques; Decision tree; Naive bayes; Educational field; Students academic performance
Abstract: This paper reports the development of a miniature shape memory alloy actuated legged robot. The solid model of the robot is developed using commercial software known as SolidWorks. The robot prototype was developed after simulating the model in the same software. The 6.3 cm long and 4.2 cm wide, four-legged robot is tested with SMA actuator wires of different diameter (0.10, 0.15, .31, 0.38 mm) manufactured by Dynalloy Inc, to analyze effects on cycle time and displacement of the robot. The prototype was tested with different voltages and actuation times. The maximum speed recorded was 1.1 mm/sec for 0.15 mm diameter SMA wire at 2.6 V.
Keywords: SMA; Miniature Legged robot; Flexinol
Abstract: The vibration as the first indicator of fault is widely accepted and used for condition monitoring of the motors and other machines. The vibration signature allows detecting many faults at their inception and allows avoiding damages which may occur due to faults like long running of the motor. Tri-axial MEMs accelerometers are widely used for the vibration measurement because of its low cost and ease of use. The low power induction is found in household and small industry applications. With the passage of time, these induction motors get faulty in terms of functionality and may lead to severe damage. Hence, low power induction motor monitoring is very important in order to avoid major damage. In this paper, vibration measurement system for the household and small industry induction motor is presented. The reported measurement system is an inexpensive and easy to implement. The vibration measurement system is developed using a small scale induction motor, Raspberry Pi 3B, and ADXL345 accelerometer.
Keywords: Vibration; Condition Monitoring; Induction motor; MEMs Accelerometer
Abstract: Overbalance drilling is executed in sapped reservoirs; that results in loss of circulation and causes formation damage which in turn causes loss in millions of dollars every year. However, underbalanced drilling provides with constructive solution for conventional drilling problems. In order to overcome such problem in this paper a close loop system of surface control equipment for underbalanced technology is executed. This strategy is useful in both vertical and horizontal wells where infiltration of drilling fluids into initial formation can terminate into extreme damage and low flow rate wells. The idea is to penetrate these formations so that there is no constraint in the formation flow with least damage and achieve highly producing wells. This is accomplished by using equivalent circulating densities (ECDs) necessary to drill those sections utilizing these drilling methodologies. The close loop system is particularly useful in drilling highly depleted and fractured reservoirs. It has been widely used to access sandstone and carbonate formations. Underbalanced operation helps to achieve less formation damage, prevention from differential sticking and loss circulation in depleted reservoir.
Keywords: Underbalance drilling; UBDPRO simulation; Formation damage; Drilling depleted reservoirs
Abstract: The inverted pendulum is widely used mechanism in designing of robotic arm. The aim of this research is to model a Self-tuned Fuzzy PID controller for inverted-pendulum; owing to that for proper modeling and controlling, LAB-VIEW is used to control real time parameters. The PID model is designed in Simulink and tested on inverted pendulum in real time. This self-tuned PID works on error and is sent to computer-based model to generate suitable output for pendulum. The microcontroller-based interface is used to get input from rotational inverted pendulum; as per difference in error movement is updated via feedback signal of sensor until the stable position is achieved. The parameters of PID are set by self-tuning algorithm. The research is very helpful for implementing the concept in self-stabilizing robots.
Keywords: Inverted pendulum; PID control; Self-tuned fuzzy controller; Lab-View; Stability.
Abstract: Image blending is measured as an energetic research part in image processing. It is a field that unifies more than one images of similar view into one blended image which is normally known as panoramic image. Researcher developed various algorithms for getting panoramic image: straight and feature based techniques. Straight techniques transform some selected pixel coordinates values and blend them with each other, whereas feature based techniques aim to set up an association among the images through individual features achieved from the training images. The second method has some perfection of being more robust, quicker, and has the aptitude to automatically determine the overlapping associations among a set of images. In this paper, we optimize the performance evaluation about those straight and feature based techniques of image blending. Through a lot of experiments, we investigate the potential of the algorithms’ outcome through the quality of blended images.
Keywords: Image Blending; SIFT; Harris Corner; SURF; Panorama.
Abstract: Casing maintains the structural integrity of the wellbore it is the barrier between collapsing forces and the hydrocarbon’s production pathway. Structural damage, wear and defects in its reliability cannot be tolerated. Due to the increasing demand of hydrocarbon production, exploiting unconventional reservoirs and targeting multiple reservoirs from single platform more and more tortuous, deviated and high dog leg severity wells are being drilled these days. In drilling such complex trajectories the problem of severe casing wear is encountered, which sometimes leads to minor technical problems like leakages, inability to hold operational pressures and in other cases it may invite a catastrophic event like blow-out. In this research the impact of the rotation speed of the drill string on the wear groove depth and the integrity of the casing is analyzed using the casing wear module of the DRILLSCAN software. The rotation of the drill string is increased from 60 RPM to 120 RPM with the gradual increment of 20 RPMs. The results show that the wear of the casing increases linearly with increasing drill string rotation and the internal yield strength decreases with increasing the rotation of the drill string.
Keywords: Casing Wear; Dog leg severity; casing integrity; Drill string rotation; Contact force.