Abstract: Construction waste is a worldwide problem and is produced at most of the construction sites. Every year, a large quantity of construction waste is being produced at construction sites due to C&D activities. They have a huge impact on cost, time, productivity and sustainability. in Pakistan’s construction industry, the construction waste is of great concern like many other countries. This industry is focusing on waste management efforts like recycling, and reuse programs. Environmental degradation is the ultimate effect of this waste. To maintain the environment by the disposal of construction solid waste from their working area demolition waste is a major waste in some construction industry. The aim of this study is to identify the construction waste generation on site and to determine the construction waste management plan that has been applied in the same project. Several researchers found different attributes in different regions. In this study, the review has been conducted in four stages. A general review has been done to identify various waste generating attributes across the globe. this study has highlighted the waste generating attributes across the globe, developed countries, developing countries and especially in Pakistan. 78 such factors are enlisted based on comparative analysis. Findings of this research work are related to current construction waste attributes in Pakistan.
Keywords: Construction Waste; Construction & Demolition Activities; Waste Attributes and Pakistan
Abstract: A Library management system (LMS) plays a key role in students’ satisfaction. A good management system of a library must provide effective ways to the library staff in order to save time as well as efforts. In this age of modern technology almost all of the institutes from the globe are trying their level best to facilitate their students from the best technologies. Therefore, most of the institutes are moving to either Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) or Barcode technology to manage their library. The use of these technologies in library can significantly improve the overall service of the library that may eventually lead to a better student’s satisfaction. However, it is of great interest to know that which technology works better when we talk about a library management system. This study presents a comparative and conclusive remark for both of these technologies along with their benefits and drawbacks which may help the people in transforming their library management using these technologies. We have performed extensive experiments by setting up necessary hardware equipment. Specifically we have compared the scanning time for RFID and barcode technologies. Experiments reveal that barcode technology works better than RFID technology.
Keywords: RFID; Barcode; Library Management Technologies; Comparison; Security
Abstract: At present we are running in the globalized electronic and computerized world of 21st century, everything is in palms of our hand; anything that we need is just here in the blink of an eye, even though we have to cope up somehow with physical aspect of the things. Paper documents are very significant information carter and are considered to be the asset of every organization. The core intent of this research paper is to track the paper documents in an office premises. The emerging RFID technology is being used for this research because of its automatic nature and robustness. This research is based on two aspects of tracking, manual and automatic. Both aspects will be carried out using RFID technology depending upon the scenario. The RFID system is composed of RFID tag, reader and computer. Documents are tagged to be tracked using RFID devices such as hand held and fixed. RFID reader would be installed at every office desk from where document has to be processed and also some main spots in the organization. When the document found in the locality of reader then the location and all related information about the document is stored into the centralized database. The Interface software operated under administrator is responsible for the managing and tracking of the document and also responsible for the supervision of the confidentiality of the document. It is an automated application, easy to control, time saving and more notably it is secure and reliable that heightens the reputation of the organization.
Keywords: RFID; Document; Smart Management; Security; Tracking
Abstract: Most of the wells in oil and gas industry are vertical. These wells have low risk in terms of its construction and maintenance and easy to drill as compare to horizontal drilling. Horizontal wells are drilled to enhance production and performance of well by providing wide range of well bore (contact area) with reservoir that’s why horizontal drilling is very popular. Horizontal and vertical wells though have number of advantages but there are some disadvantages and one of them is skin. Skin is basically the measure of amount of damage around the well bore in reservoir. Damage near well bore may cause by fine migration, wettability reverse, solid plugging, drilling fluid etc. Intensity of positive skin ranges from 0 to 50 indicates damaged reservoir and intensity of negative skin ranges from -0 to -5 indicates improved reservoir after implementing stimulation job. It is estimated that production from two third of horizontal and vertical wells are reduced because of skin. For minimizing formation damage reactive solution of chemicals either Hydro Caloric Acid or Hydro Fluoric Acid are used known as acidizing. The research methodology is to first collect information/data from fields regarding formation damage in vertical well and horizontal well having the same reservoir then by using simulation software analysis take place between horizontal well and vertical well in terms of production. In case of horizontal well formation damage caused to reduce the production from 15 MMSCFD to 10 MMSCFD. By applying proposed treatment job the production increase to 18.364 MMSCFD while in case of vertical well formation damage caused to reduce the production from 5 MMSCF/D to 3 MMSCF/D. By applying appropriate treatment job the production increase to 4.618 MMSCF/D.
Keywords: Skin Damage; Wettability alteration; Stimulation job; Solid Plugging; Draw down Pressure
Abstract: Drilling fluid choice plays important role for the victorious drilling operations. The economical role of drilling mud depends upon the rheological properties of base fluid . Diesel oil is generally utilize as base fluid within the formulation of oil base mud however because of its aromatic and least concentration of n-olefins composition extremely affected to plants and surroundings. The Esters area unit non-petroleum spinoff of vegetable oils which biodegrades simply, aerobically once cutting is discharged. During this study three completely various oil (corn oil, mustard oil, local canola vegetable oil, ) be used to investigate their rheological characteristics of the oil base muds samples. According to API standards , 13B-1 routine testing were used to investigate the rheological characteristics of mud samples .There were twelve oil mud samples has been prepared with completely different oil water ratios of 90/10, 80/20 and 70/30 to calculated the rheological characteristics with the assistance of OFITE Model 800 measuring device.
Keywords: Drilling fluid; Vegetable oil base mud; Environment Impact; Rheological properties; Physiochemical Properties
Abstract: Interest for producing fuel due to rapid development and globalization is increasing day by day. No doubt the hydrocarbon fuel resources are significant origin of vitality which are utilized in numerous methods and they have great application in the global era that’s why there need is also arises day by day. One of the most revolutionary intervention is intelligent well completion with downhole devices which are called as Equalizers or Inflow control device. Intelligent wells have the advantage to improve well productivity and to provide a quick and efficient solution for almost all problems without requiring a direct intervention to the well. This paper is focused on the changes came in the results after applying the Equalizer application in the horizontal well model. The research methodology includes information about data gathering in order to make the required models. The models are generated using simulation software. In first case conventional horizontal well model is made i.e. no any data of equalizer is entered in the model. For comparison of results this case is considered as base case. While in the second case, equalizer data is also entered in the horizontal well model. After generating models, the results are analyzed and compared. In this research paper, simulation based analysis is done by analyzing and comparing the results of two cases. In case 1 the conventional horizontal well model is made and after observing the results it was concluded that well produced 0.71 million STB of oil in first 10 years of its life. In case 2 in order to improve the recovery of well, equalizer/ICDs (which are application of smart well) were attached in the same horizontal well model and it was observed that in first 10 years of well’s life, 1.11 million STB of oil was produced. However, it should be noted that cumulative liquid production (10.9 million STB) remains same in both cases. In other words, it can be concluded that ICD accelerates the production process of oil.
Keywords:Intelligent Well completion; Equalizer/ICD; Horizontal well model
Abstract: Makli in famous for its historical Architecture especially mix use of various materials art work and patterns. The work presented in brick, stone and tile on various parts of the structures are considered as novel pieces of unique art, rendering and masonry. The elegant art and design work in Makli is virtually lying in open sky and being dilapidated day by day. Most of the monuments are in enormous threat of natural and human interactions. The conservation efforts made so far need very careful review and intervention but the situation at site is miserably conducted and authenticity of monument is on stake. In order to maintain the authenticity of the monument, conservation work on Sultan Ibrahim need to be very carefully reviewed and analyzed. The initial observation and picturesque of the work illustrates indication of wrong conservation.
Keywords: Authenticity in Architectural conservation; Enormous threat of natural and human interactions; Wrong conservation
Abstract: Nowadays, the developing number of applications are based on accuracy and rapid 3D scene analysis. A lower estimated, quick and suitable alternative for depth data capacity are time-of-flight cameras. In this work, we explored the usefulness of a 3D Time-of-flight camera for our hand gesture recognition system. The purpose of our system is to observe different static hand gestures, to make projections, also to build the base of the gesture projection and the intensity features of the image captured by the range camera are quite good enough to use them in the nearest neighbour algorithm for matching the gestures on to the base.
Keywords: Insulation Thickness; HVAC; Buildings Energy Management; Air-conditioning
Abstract: IHot Mix Asphalt is the integral part of flexible pavement which is the mixture of suitable proportion of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, fillers and the binder. Fillers are of the size of less than 0.075 mm. Fillers are very essential part of Hot Mix Asphalt that fill the voids within the aggregates, provide the stability and other important properties. Various Mineral fillers have been used such as waste glass, marble dust, stone dust, ordinary Portland cement by researchers to enhance the properties of mixes, however there is still need of other material such as Waste Tyre Rubber to be used to further control the properties of the Hot Mix Asphalt. The aim of the research is to investigate the effect of waste rubber tyre powder as mineral filler on the mechanical properties of Hot Mix Asphalt. Using varying percentages of bitumen ranges from 3.0% to 5.0% with the interval of 0.5%, fifteen conventional specimens were prepared to check the properties and to obtain the Optimum Binder Content and using that optimum bitumen content and five different percentages 5.0% to 15% of waste tyre rubber powder as partial replacement of conventional filler, other fifteen mixes were prepared and examined to compare the results with the properties of controlled mixes and to obtain the Optimum Filler Content. From the results of Marshall Tests conducted for Asphalt wearing coarse Waste Tyre Rubber found optimum at 10% filler Content in the Hot Mix Asphalt.
Keywords: Hot Mix Asphalt; Mineral Filler; Mechanical Properties
Abstract: Building Energy consumption is responsible for major share of global energy demand (40%) which is mainly consumed to maintain building space cooling and heating requirement. Therefore, conservation of energy is a critical issue in building sector. To conserve energy in buildings, an efficient HVAC system must be designed, and it should be operated at optimal design parameters. In this study, different building energy systems are studied to investigate the most effective energy conservation system for building application. It mainly focuses on optimal design of HVAC system specifically its air distribution system. In air distribution system, energy loss occurs due to conditioned air leakages, improper thermal insulation thickness, poor design of ducting layout and ineffective controlling of conditioned space parameters with air handling unit operating conditions. Among above losses, significant amount of energy loss occurs due to improper insulation thickness and material. In this regards, different studies were conducted to determine optimum thermal insulation thickness and associated condensation at external surface of the duct. Therefore, this study is devoted to determining the most effective thermal insulation thickness material for HVAC duct. From different studies, it is summarized that use of air gap, optimizing insulation at point of compression produces economical benefits and environmental amiable by using life cycle cost analysis and life cycle environmental assessment.
Keywords: HVAC; Thermal Insulation; Insulation Material; HVAC Classification
Abstract: Medical waste management is an increasing environmental concern in developing countries. In current days societies are becoming more advance everything (devices, material and objects) is becoming waste, thus its management becomes a serious challenge. The uncontrolled disposal of medical waste generating from different health care facilities causes a serious threat as it contaminates the land, surrounding environment and also placing public health and environment at serious risk. Sukkur is the third largest district in the Province of Sindh located on the western bank of river Indus and is generates large quantity of hazardous medical waste.The effective management of medical waste, its assessment, characterization and safe disposal is very essential for a healthy environment. With this aim a comparative study was carried out in different public and private healthcare facilities of Sukkur city. The goals of the study were to assess the quantity of waste generated from different health care facilities, its characterization and to provide an appropriate strategy for the safe management of infectious waste. A questionnaire survey was initially conducted to collect the information about handling of waste, its disposal and overall waste management awareness among staff. Approximately 1.646 tons/day of hospital waste is generated in Sukkur citywith an average generation rate 1.85 kg/bed/day. Out of it0.378 ton infectious waste and 0.049 ton chemical and radioactive waste is generated at Sukkur. Medical waste is composed of 26% infectious waste, 14% sharp waste, 14% pharmaceutical waste, 39% pathological waste and 3-4% of chemical and radioactive waste. The study depicted that there is no segregation process in many health care facilities while approximately 60% of the generated waste is collected by municipal authoritiesand the remaining 40% is contributing in placing the environment and public health at a serious risk.
Keywords: Medical Waste; Segregation; Characterization; Assessment; Environment; Waste Management
Abstract: BGas percolation through the cement has remained petroleum industry problem since long time. Permeability within or around the cement allows the fluid to flow through it to other zones and to surface and builds up the pressure in the column. This phenomenon can results in loss of production, catastrophic consequences and huge economic losses. Permeability of cement normally depends upon various factors such as additives, slurry design, mixing procedure and curing time. Although, several techniques has been applied to cope with this problem but yet it needs more work to be done. This study is an experimental investigation for mitigating the development of permeability in the cement at standard conditions. This work focuses on use of silica flour in the cement slurry, the fine particles nature of silica flour will plug the pores and restrict the permeability to be created. The other additives for specific properties like. Dispersants, expansion additives, fluid loss additives were also used in fixed ratio with silica flour. The samples with different concentration of silica flour were prepared according to the API recommended practice. The Silica flour at 0 % BWOC, 26% BWOC, 32% BWOC and 38% BWOC in cement was used, where as the prepared samples were cured for 01, 07 and 20 days. The effect of silica flour as an additive in mitigating cement permeability was investigated; where as the role of curing age was also observed in reducing the permeability of the cement. The study shows the addition of silica flour creates a high resistance in the development of the permeability and it also shows that the curing time also affects the permeability of the cement.
Keywords: Well Cement; Silica Flour; Class G cement; Cement Permeability; Sustained casing pressure
Abstract: This paper presents the designing of model based real time estimator for estimation of creep force coefficient and adhesion level. Level of adhesion is influenced by many factors such as contamination and climate change and it is very difficult to predict a change in level of adhesion directly with ease and accuracy. Level of adhesion has major influence on braking and acceleration of vehicle and it is one of the very import factor in safety and quality of railway transport. In this paper, a simplified wheel-rail model has been presented and simulated using Simulink/Matlab. Creep force coefficient in different contaminated conditions such as dry, wet, snow and ice has been estimated using nonlinear estimator the Extended Kalman Filter and adhesion level in these contaminated conditioned have been estimated.
Keywords: Adhesion Level; Creep Force Coefficient; Extended Kalman Filter (EKF); Modeling& Simulation; Rail-Wheel Dynamics
Abstract: : Slip is a damaging phenomenon in railway system. It causes the mechanical deformation of the traction system and wheel-rail contact surface. Moreover, it may affect the stability of the whole system and it is due to when the tractive or braking effort exceed the available adhesion at the wheel-rail contact. Which typically happen in poor conditions of weather and also because of contaminations on track surface. It is a serious matter in railway, not because it compromises railway system and passenger safety, but also it causes operational problems and increase the cost of recovery for damaged or flat wheels. This paper presents the designing of sliding mode control for re-adhesion control of railway traction system. The results show that this re-adhesion control scheme based on sliding mode control improves traction stability and prevents wheel slip.
Keywords: Re-adhesion Control; Sliding Mode Control (SMC); Slip; Wheel-Rail Dynamics
Abstract: The production of gas in condensate reservoir has remained challenge for decades. Operators are focused to drill deeper formations, due to high temperature and pressure more condensate reservoirs are encountered which are difficult to handle due to multiphase behavior of gas-condensate. Several authors have contributed to mitigate the losses and gave concepts of three regions as well as flowing mechanism. The aim of this study is to investigate main causes of loss in gas production due to condensation. Furthermore, to discuss the most suitable method to handle complications in gas condensate reservoirs. In this paper, we discussed main causes for low gas production in condensate reservoirs. Accurate calculations remained a challenge for reservoir engineers to forecast well deliverability in gas-condensate reservoirs. We observed some techniques to forecast well deliverability properly as well as to reduce impact of loss in gas-phase productivity.
Keywords: Condensate reservoir; liquid dropout; Condensate buildup; Gas Condensate production; Productivity losses
Abstract: Compositional reservoirs (gas-condensate) have complex behaviour. Gas-condensate reservoirs are critical reservoirs in nature. Gas-condensate reservoir has single phase fluid above the dew-point pressure and below the dew-point pressure has two-phase fluids. In depletion method, reservoir pressure decreases below the dew-point pressure at that pressure two phase-fluid start to form gas and condensate in the reservoir and liquid accumulate around the wellbore that is condensate banking. The accumulation of condensate around the wellbore that blocks the perforated channels and decreases the flow of gas and also the valuable condensate. It is necessary to model the reservoir fluid behaviour before the production. The EOS “Peng Robinson” is the best equation to model the reservoir fluid behaviour for compositional reservoirs. Lab data CCE, CVD and Separator must have matched with the EOS by using PVT software with ±5 acceptable error. Eclipse E-300 is the best software to simulate the compositional reservoir. Condensate can be re-vaporizing into the single-phase fluid by re-injecting (gas cycling) the gas into the reservoir to maintain the reservoir pressure above the dew point pressure. Gas cycling can maintain the reservoir pressure by two methods 1st Partial pressure maintenance method and 2nd Full pressure maintenance method. Select the best one recovery method depletion, partial pressure maintenance or full pressure maintenance. Select the best production and injection layers (perforation depth), the number of wells, well patterns, production and injection rates and gas cycling years. And select the best cases of a maximum value of NPV and IRR by using the petroleum policy 2012.
Keywords: Gas cycling; Gas Condensate; Gas cycling; Slip; Wheel-Rail Dynamics
Abstract: An experimental study is carried out to check the mobility of crude oil by using different samples of crude oil. In this study the samples of crude oil has been collected from Hyderabad block that brought into laboratory analysis through Saybolt viscometer at atmospheric conditions. By adding Methanol as agent to the sample of heavy crude oil for viscosity reduction. It is observed that through methanol adding 1% in crude oil the viscosity was found 55.66 SUS and adding of 10% to crude oil, viscosity was found 47.4 SUS. It is observed that through experiments the methanol is highly effective as a viscosity reducing agent.
Keywords: Heavy crude oil; Additives; Mobility; Hyderabad Block; Methanol
Abstract: Lack of integration between reservoir, well and surface network modeling results in reduced rates from oil and gas well. Production optimization techniques are the essential key to resolve this issue and optimize the well productivity during the entire life of the well. The objective of this study is to optimize the production of an X well in Pakistan using the Integrated Production Modeling (IPM) suite. In this study three worthwhile softwares (MBAL, PROSPER, GAP) are used. MBAL used to predict reserves up to 2031 which were found 64 BCF. Gas reserve based on volumetric estimate is 795.68 BCF. In January 2017, cumulative gas production Gp is 9.026 BCF. Using prosper, the measured gas rate is found almost similar to software calculated gas rate and result variation is less than 2%. Furthermore the impact of each parameter such as well stimulation, tubing size, water gas ratio, condensate gas ratio, well head pressure and average reservoir pressure are also observed to identify any bottleneck in the production system. GAP software analysis is also implemented to optimize the production of this X-well. Network Solver is run to investigate various types of separator pressure using different tubing diameters to analyze the impact gas rate and flow rate. In this case it is found when selected tubing diameter 3.5in and separator pressure is 500psi (pound per square foot), the flow rate of the well using GAP is 17.04 MMscf/day and observed zero flow rates on 2/9/2022. And when using tubing diameter 3.5in and separator pressure is 700psi (pound per square foot), the flow rate of the well is found 16.01 MMscf/day and observed zero flow rates on 8/1/2020.
Keywords: Production Optimization; HPHT Reservoir; Gas condensate reservoir; Integration production modeling; Sensitivity analysis
Abstract: ABig data visualization and classification becomes the main job for database management systems, dealing with big data is not an easy scenario specifically when you are getting different type of data from different places and you have to maintain data security and efficiency. 5 V’s of big data introduced to overcome some data transforming issues but still there are many challenges that a big data system may face. There are many tools and techniques that have been designed and developed specifically to handle big data; in this paper we will discuss some focused challenges of big data along with some basic big data tools and techniques, at the end we will compare all the tools to demonstrate that which big data tool is better for big data analysis and visualization.
Keywords: Big Data; 5 V s of big data; Veracity; Visualization; Classification
Abstract: The production ceases from every well as a result of reservoir pressure depletion. As the pressures depletes, the production of gas wells also depletes, a stage comes where liquid effluents could not move upward from the wellbore and starts accumulating around the wellbore. The usual accumulation of liquids around the wellbore creates further problem in reduced production rates. In order to maintain production rates, there a number of possibilities to prevent liquid loading prior to its occurrence. One option is to implement artificial lift method, or in other cases chemicals or foams injections helps to better use the reservoirs remaining energy. In some cases, tubing string sizes could optimize the production. Although, tubing string size selection will help in alleviating liquid loading for a certain time, however this is not an ultimate solution because the reservoir pressure depletes more, the well will start again loading. As the liquids starts accumulating around the wellbore, it becomes very critical to detect it early and to choose an appropriate prevention method. This paper deals with understanding liquid loading problems, prediction of liquid and its identification.
Keywords: Liquid Loading; Profile of Multiphase; Multiphase Flow;
Abstract: Renewable energy sources are used mainly due to increasing environmental concerns. Integration of Wind energy with power system network has many advantages such as, it is fuel free source, no pollution, reliable, increases the generation capacity but at the same time it has power quality issues, one of the main power quality issue is voltage sag which increases loses in a line, increases the size of conductor as well as cost of equipment and reduces the life of system. Voltage sag occurs when load is increased or in case of different fault conditions. This work shows how dynamic voltage regulator is used to control power quality issues of doubly fed induction generator based wind turbine in case of different faults. In this system DVR is used to regulate the voltage sag simulated by using Matlab (2016) (b).
Keywords: Wind power plant; DVR; Renewable Energy interconnection; Experimentation; Simulation
Abstract: It is in common practice that when the soil of low bearing capacity unable to sustain the load of the structure within permissible limits of settlement is made to improve its geotechnical properties with the help of certain techniques. Chemical stabilization is one of the techniques in which the chemicals binds soil grains together by the means of chemical interaction. Usually, the chemicals are mixed with soil, which needs certain machineries in field to get it done. However, if these chemicals are placed layer to layer then the required effort and energy can be reduced, making it more economical. In this research Jamshoro Soil is analyzed with lime as chemical stabilizers in varying proportions from 0 % to 25 % with the increment of 5 %. The tests employed to compare both the stabilizer applying techniques (mixing technique and layering technique) are unconfined compression strength (UCS) test and CBR (Soaked and Un-Soaked) test. In these test results it is found that the strength of soil increases on addition of stabilizer when it is mixed, however in layering technique it is true in some cases. Furthermore, in all the samples it is found that the mixing technique provides more strength as compare to layering technique.
Keywords: Jamshoro Soil; Stabilizer Applying Techniques; Lime; CBR; UCS
Abstract: In order to reduce the complication of producing wells it is essential to appropriately design the completion assembly prior to running in. Because, appropriate design of completion assembly saves the time and expenditures that might result in performing work over jobs and other operations on wells which may increase overall operation costs. The essential part of completion assembly design includes the tubing movement, stresses acting upon tubing string, compression, tension, ballooning, buckling and temperatures changes during injection and production. The prediction of tubing movement due to aforementioned forces acting on assembly is essential in the completion design of the producing or injection wells. The changes in length of tubing due to these forces are main cause of the completion problems. Therefore, this study deals with understanding all the factors that effect on tubing. Further, the compensation of tubing movement is also discussed with the factors.
Keywords: Tubing movement; Tubing length; Tubing forces; Tubing compensation; Simulati
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