Abstract: The environmental concerns, thermal comfort, Energy security and economic problems are motivating aspects for improvement of research on decreasing energy consumption and the associated greenhouse gas emissions in every section of the world economy, so that is why the choice of the correct electric traction drive is essential phase while planning and design with intention to have good performance optimization, as the application of electric vehicle demands wide speed range, high power density, and low cost of machine. Since the recent trends and interest by manufacturers, engineers and researchers in rare earth free machines application due to unstable cost of rare earth metal and fault tolerant issues, shows the major breakthrough in switched reluctance machine technology. This paper presents the review of cost effective and performance based study of switched Reluctance machine drive technologies in addition to induction and permanent magnet machines used for electric vehicle applications with respect to target set by US department of energy (DoE) for freedom Car 2020 and will be linked to the guidance of new technologies for electric motors, which can play pivotal role in the selection of suitable EV machine. The research and analysis prove that, SRM could be the best alternative and can be preferred due to wide speed range operation capability and low cost with minimum losses in EV application.
Keywords: CO2 Emission; Electric Machine Drive; Electric Vehicle; Hybrid Electric Vehicle; Switched Reluctance Motor
Abstract: Different methods of estimating macroscopic traffic properties is expected to have varying results even when they are carried out on the same road and during the same time interval. A comparative assessment was carried out between traffic data collected at a point and that collected over a short section; Moving car observer method(MCO). Student’s t-test was used to evaluate both data and it was observed that there was no significant difference between them. The MCO method correlates well with conventional data collection method and it can be used as a substitute for it, assuming conventional data collection method is true.
Keywords: Macroscopic traffic flow properties; Speed; Flow; MCO method; Students t-test
Abstract: Growing developments in technology now is focused to provide better facilities towards human health. Advancement in electronics and wireless communications has led to the reality of biosensors which are small in size and are easily implanted to or are wearable by humans. Wireless Body Area Sensor Network (WBASN) is a technological field in which sensors are placed on human body to measure physiological parameters. The sensors are very small in size and have the capabilities to observe the physiological parameters and the changes occurring and after observing transmit them for further process. One of the main limitations for the sensors which are being used in WBASN is power. The sensors have a battery used to provide power. Energy is consumed mostly when transmission takes place. During transmission, path loss is generated which results in an attenuated output signal. This transmission path loss is dependent on two factors that are distance and frequency. The distance is from transmitting sensor node to the base station or sink. In this paper a technique based on transposition for on body medical sensors is proposed for the reduction of the path loss. The proposed scheme is transposition of the sensors on the human body. This transposition is based on the lesser distance of the sensors from sink or the base station.
Keywords: Path loss; Sensors; Energy; Distance; Transpose
Abstract: Transmission control protocol (TCP) was initially intended for established systems to give the dependability of the information conveyance. The change of TCP execution was additionally accomplished with various sorts of systems with the presentation of new TCP variations. To decide the best TCP variant from the system multifaceted nature perspective, we simulate some TCP variants in a real-life scenario. This work addresses the execution of TCP and TCP variants, for example, TCP, TCPReno, TCP-New Reno, TCP-Vegas as sources and TCP-Sink as a goal in the network. The situations displayed in this paper are bolstered by ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing protocol with the incorporation of various network complexities of the versatile mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) utilizing random waypoint portability model. The situation demonstrates portable nodes situated especially for a grounds zone. On the premise of simulation, we analyze End-to-End delay, jitter, throughput, and packet deliver ratio as the quality of service (QoS) measurements.
Keywords: Variants of transmission control protocol; Mobile ad-hoc network; Routing protocol
Abstract: Budget is positive fluctuation of the cost of the project or budget of the project increased from approved and allocated budget. Cost overrun or budget overrun is critical issue in construction industry globally. Developing counties including Pakistan is also facing this issue in construction of road projects. The main aim of this study is to identify the major factors of budget overrun in construction of road projects of Sindh province. A questionnaire was established and established questionnaire was consisting of 51 factors of budget overrun or cost overrun which were identified from deep literature review. Established questionnaire were distributed among stakeholders of road projects which includes contractors, client and consultant. Stakeholders were asked to rank each factor according to their experiences. Gathered data was analyzed and results showed that client interference, payment problems faced by contractor, delay in taking decisions, payment problems faced by client from government, client interference, change in projects scope, changes in design and inexperienced contractor were found as major factors of budget overrun in construction of road projects. This study will help stakeholders to control major factors of budget overrun in construction of road projects in Sindh province.
Keywords: Budget of the project road projects: Budget overrun; Stakeholders; Payment problems
Abstract: Due to the volatile characteristics of the underwater environment, provision of better communication and maximization of the communication performance has remained a biggest challenge for the UWSN network. It is difficult for the radio signals to proliferate into the water, thus acoustic technology is required to be adopted. Node mobility, 3-D spaces and horizontal communication links are some critical challenges to the researcher in designing new routing protocols for UWSNs. In this paper, we proposed a novel routing protocol called Diagonal and Vertical Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Network(DVRP) to address the issues of continuous node movements, end-to-end delays and energy consumption. In DVRP, every node can calculate its flooding angle to forward data packets toward the sinks without using any explicit configuration or location information. The simulation results show that DVRP has some advantages over some existing flooding-based techniques and also can easily manage quick routing changes where node movements are frequent.
Keywords: UWSNs; DVRP; Angle Zone; Flooding; Energy
Abstract: This work is focused on design of Global System for Mobile (GSM) based security module and it’s interfacing to vehicle, which allows user to remotely disable the vehicle. The security system consists of two cell phones and a security module. Security module with an embedded cell phone is placed in vehicle while other cell is used by user. During enable mode, the embedded cell phone forward alert signal to user phone and get control signals from user for the security module. Two methods are providing to send control signals. One method uses a simple message service to disable ignition of the vehicle and other method uses call to cut off fuel of the vehicle. The system is easy to install and can be operated from anywhere. The concept of this product has vast potential for further extensions and advancements and can be installed for other systems and places for security.
Keywords: Global System for Mobile (GSM); Short Messaging Service (SMS); Control Signals; Subscriber Identification Modules (SIM)
Abstract: It has been recognized that the addition of small, closely spaced and uniformly dispersed fibers to concrete would act as crack arrester and would substantially improve its static and dynamic properties. In this research, soft drink tins were used as fiber reinforcement in concrete to produce fiber reinforcement concrete (FRC). Some work was carried out in the past to observe the effect of fibers (soft drink tins) in concrete on compressive strength as well as workability of concrete. This study aimed to determine the effect of soft drink tins as used fiber reinforcement on compressive strength of concrete. There were 30 cubes in total were casted by utilizing this ratio 1: 1.69: 3.15 at 0.54 w/c ratios by using mix design method. The cubes were casted using a proportion of fibers 1%, 2% and 3% by weight of cement using ½”, 1” and 1 ½” long strip respectively. Results shows that with the increase in the percentage and size of strips in concrete, the workability of concrete is decreased and the compressive strength is significantly increased in fiber made mix concrete. Maximum compressive strength, i.e. 33% more than control mix concrete, is obtained using 1.5” long with 3% of fiber strips.
Keywords: Fiber Reinforcement Concrete; Workability, Compressive Strength
Abstract: The over whelming chunk of portable broadband activity originates from indoor usage of tablets having USB or inbuilt modem. To fulfill high data rate needs for mobile users particularly indoor users as most of the data intensive applications are run by indoor users, paradigm shift towards higher frequencies is required. Against an indoor penetration loss, higher frequencies seem more vulnerable. This phenomenon results in affecting the capacity of operator’s Network. Mobile operator are facing this challenging situation as they need ensure Quality of service (QoS) and enhancing user experience terms of costs and resources. ¬¬¬¬This work aims to analyze the impact of offloading outdoor users to small cells, which are being served by macro network i.e. network consisting of outdoor base stations only (Macrocell Base station or EnodeB) in terms of performance, capacity, Femto (UE’s) Peak and Average throughput and offloading Macro users to femto users and Network performance in such scenario is then assessed. The net average UE throughput / Network Throughput were increased when offloading outdoor users to small cells, which are being served by macro network. Femto cell enhanced network improves overall average user throughput in terms of overall sum-, peak- or edge throughput.
Keywords: 5G; Small Cell densification; User offloading; Throughput; Femtocell / Small Cell
Abstract: Construction industry of Pakistan is creating number of job opportunities and also playing role for development of economic growth. The problem of delay is more severe in road projects compared to other types of construction projects. Delay in construction projects indicates negative perception to the stakeholders as well as to investors or donors. Main objective of this research is to find out significant causative factors of delay in road construction projects in Pakistan. From previous studies and interviews 75 common factors of delay were identified. A questionnaire was developed and distributed amongst 95 respondents from client, consultant and contractors engaged in road construction projects, respondents were asked to rank each factor according to their experience. Gathered data was analyzed by using average index method. After data analysis, the results showed that inadequate planning, late payment to contractor, changes in design, changes in specification of material, delay in material supply, weather impact, poor coordination between parties and poor site management were found significant causative factors of delay in road construction in Pakistan. The finding of this paper is useful for construction stakeholders for achieving effective cost performance in road construction projects.
Keywords: Causative factors; Road Projects; Delay; Pakistan
Abstract: The drinking water quality of ground water was investigated in suspected parts of Taluka Kazi Ahmed of district Shaheed Benzirabad, Sindh Pakistan, to ensure the continuous supply of clean and safe drinking water for the public health protection. In this regard, a detailed physical and chemical analysis of drinking water samples was carried out in different residential and commercial areas of Taluka Kazi Ahmed. 40 samples collected from different locations to check the total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), pH, Colour Taste, HCO3, Cl(mg/l), SO4, Hardness, Ca, Mg, Na, K, ALK, F, Turbidity, NO3, Fe, As, B.C of ground water.. The obtained values of each parameter were compared with the standard values set by the World Health Organization (WHO). The results revealed that Ph, colour, HCO3, SO4, Mg, Na, K, Alk, F, Fe, NO3 and As of all 40 samples were found within the permissible limit of WHO. 12.5% 15%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% samples of TDS, Taste, Cl, hardness and Ca were found above the permissible limit of WHO.
Keywords: Ground water quality; Physical and chemical parameters Kazi Ahmed; Shaheed Benzirabad