Abstract: Using the Urdu word maqamiat in relation to the built form, a research methodology is developed in this paper which helps understand and analyse maqamiat of built form. Maqamiat, which translates as localness, helps assess what it means for a city to be local in the context of Karachi, specifically, having particular variables impacting the built form, but dealing with similar issues of identity crises as other formally colonized nations. The aim of this paper is to analyse the various physical components and the decision making processes that go into the making of an urban context, in order to be able to investigate the scale at which maqamiat can be identified in the built form. This paper highlights indicators of localness and weaves them together into an evaluative framework for understanding maqamiat in the context of Karachi. This framework ties in the decision making processes related to the built form to indicators of localness and various scales at which localness can be identified.
Keywords: Maqamiat; Built form; Urban morphology; Design qualities; Karachi
Abstract: Quality of water may differ according to the geography of the region, due to that the quality of water is big concern worldwide, because majority of disease caused by the poor quality of drinking water. Subsequently realizing the significance of drinking water quality with in the central part of the Sindh province, this research work was carried out to assess the drinking water quality within the Nawabshah city, where the single source of supply water is the Gajrawah after the conventional treatment through the open ponds. In this study seven physicochemical parameter were investigated and laboratorial investigations demonstrated that the pH values were found with the WHO limits, TDS & EC values were found within the acceptable limits, except in one residential area, Turbidity was also high at all the locations only one area (Marium road colony) was found within the standards, furthermore, the hardness was present in all the samples at all the locations, which indicate that the water supplied to public was hard in nature. In addition to that Temperature and Dissolved Oxygen were found safe and within the limits and it was concluded that the water supplied to residents of the inspected areas were found not fit for drinking and it is suggested that the water supply, should be improved and essential steps should be taken to treat the water.
Keywords: Water Quality; Public Health; Gajrawah: Physicochemical; Nawabshah
Abstract: Transformer is an important element of the power system. It has several applications in the industry. For example, it is used to change the voltages from one level to another level and it also used to isolate one circuit from another circuit. There are many factors affecting the performance of the power system. The harmonics are the one of those factors. Harmonics are caused by the circulating current at the secondary windings of the power transformers, when unsuitable vector groups are used in order to connect the two or more transformers in parallel. Consequently distortion in the current and voltage wave form is occurred. This can lead to heating up of transformer and may result in insulation failure. This reduces the life of transformer as well. Vector groups are used to detect the suitable connection of the transformer, when they are connected in parallel. In this work experiments are carried out by using various types of vector groups of the transformers to analyze the harmonics. The total harmonic distortion (THD) values are taken by using the Power Quality Analyzer. The results of various transformer vector groups are taken and then comparison analysis is done. The models of the different vector groups are drawn by using the MATLAB software. The transformers are connected in parallel and then different vector groups are used to analyze the harmonic behavior of the transformer.
Keywords: Transformer; Harmonics; Harmonic distortion; Matlab; Power system
Abstract: The successful deployment of 3G network in Karachi mobile subscribers enjoyed multimedia features and meanwhile the huge multimedia data of mobile subscribers create more congestion connectivity at subscriber end. RF links does not support high data rate so alternate solution is fiber optic cable, but the under laying and maintenance of these cables is crucial problem in metropolitan cities due to huge traffic on roads. The final alternate solution is Free Space Links (FSO) because it eliminates the disadvantages of both traditional solutions. FSO is the transmission of data in line of sight (LOS) link, modulated by Infrared (IR) waves and travel via open air. So like all other open air setup it is weather sensitive and fog is the dominant phenomenon that causes unavailability of FSO links. In this paper unavailability event estimation are given using existing fog models on the basis of last four year visibility statistics data.
Keywords: Fog Models; FSO Links; Unavailability Estimation; Full duplex; Line-of-sight
Abstract: The aim of this study is to improve the strength of concrete made by partial replacement of fine aggregate with waste glass. The fine aggregate was replaced by waste glass as (0-40%) with dosage of 4% using constant water-binder ratio as 0.45. Two sizes of waste glass fine aggregate (WGFA1) passing from 1.71 mm sieve and retained from 1.19 mm sieve and WGFA2 size passing from 1.19 mm sieve and retained from 0.5 mm sieve were used as partial replacement of hill sand. One mixture of control concrete and twenty mixtures of modified concrete prepared with partial replacement of fine aggregate with two different sizes of waste glass were prepared. The workability, water absorption, density and compressive strength of control and modified concretes were tested. The experimental test results revealed that maximum improvement was observed at 12% replacement of hill sand with waste glass on all investigated properties of concrete. Moreover, better improvement was observed with replacement of hill sand with waste glass fine aggregate WGFA1 than that of WGFA2.
Keywords: Waste Glass; Fine aggregate replacement; Water absorption; Density of concrete; Compressive Strength
Abstract: When an induction motor is operated at unbalanced voltage supply the performance characteristics like efficiency, power factor, input power, output power and losses are affected. In this paper performance of 3-phase squirrel cage induction motor operating at balanced and unbalanced voltage supply has been analyzed. In order to follow the comparative approach, the machine is first analyzed at the balanced condition followed by the analysis at under-voltage and over voltage unbalance condition. The analysis is carried out considering the definition of voltage unbalance given by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). MATLAB/Simulink has been used to simulate a 2hp induction motor operated at balance and unbalance voltage with a fixed load and with different percentages of unbalance.
Keywords: Induction motor; Unbalanced voltage; Performance characters; VUF; IEC
Abstract: This paper investigates and addresses the effect of Methyl Cellulose on durability properties of Rice Husk Ash Polymer Modified Concrete. Concrete mixes were prepared, i.e. Control Mix (CM), Rice Husk Ash blended Concrete (10% cement replacement with rice husk ash) and Rice Husk Ash Polymer Modified Concrete (RHAPMC) prepared by replacing 10% cement with the extracted rice husk ash and the addition of 2.5% re-dispersible polymer powder (RPP) by the weight of cement. To investigate the effect of Methyl Cellulose (MC) in RHAPMC, the addition of MC from 0.1 to 1.1 % by the weight of cement was used. MC has a significant impact on unit weight as well as in permeability of RHAPMC. The modified concrete became light weight with the addition of MC. A significant improvement in impermeability of RHAPMC at 0.1% dosage of MC has been observed.
Keywords: Methyl Cellulose; Rice Husk Ash; Re-dispersible Polymer Powder; Permeability
Abstract: Internet broadband connectivity content has created a global phenomenon in which information and communication technology (ICT) is being used to transfer education. Cloud computing is becoming an attractive technology due to its dynamic scalability and effective usage of the resources and it can be utilized under circumstances where the availability of resources is limited. E-learning systems have high infrastructure requirement that are necessary to provide concurrent service to that amount of student which actually succeeds the capabilities of a conventional web server. Cloud computing provides the plat form to support e-learning as it delivers the computing resources both hardware and software as a service over the internet. In this paper, we will provide a comprehensive survey on e-learning systems in cloud computing environment and converse assorted proposed solutions.The proposed e-cloud provides the opportunity of flexibility and adaptability to use the computing resources on demand and resolve many problems like data security, performance, Centralized data storage, privacy, accessibility, Pay per usage, back up and reduce the cost of maintenance and improved performance of document format compatibility. There are many cloud services providers that educational system like Amazon, Google, Yahoo, Microsoft etc.
Keywords: E-learning; Cloud computing; Resources; Information; Communication technology(ICT); Internet
Abstract: Cyber challenge is an emerging issue in cyber protection situation in order to provide training education. In the stages of the technology development and production of portable and computing campaigns of civilization, cyber control which is suitable and a progressively major approach in the accomplishment of national defense. Breaching of information is an ordinary event because of mutually growing business and also broadcast the information security legislation globally. Whereas, numerous privacy controllers exist and the leading standard has to respond on reported cyber activities. More, this paper overview the current emerging issues, barriers, threats, attacks and research directions in the field of cyber and information security to defend and protect their information resources adjacent to cyber-crimes. Therefore, Interruptive cyber measures are classified into five classes which are foundation campaign for malicious actors as they can interrupt a targeted network and the classification of these interruptive cyber measures enables to contrast events either existing in same class or different classes. More, this paper elaborates six basic prominent factors and barriers which are most effective factors for organizations, business and governments. At last, cyber security strategies, cyber risks and key areas of few countries (Such as: Germany, UK,USA) have been illustrated in Section security strategies for cyberspace to achieve future goals, also aware the researchers, strategy makers, scientists, technologists and organizations to develop new tools, approaches, techniques to dealt with above mentioned barriers.
Keywords: Security; Strategies; Cyber Measures; Factors; Barriers
Abstract: The utilization of solid waste materials or industrial waste as partial substitution of cement is growing in construction industry all around world to reduce the consumption of cement consequently reduction in CO2 emission into the atmosphere and reduction in energy consumption. The aim of this study is to improve the strength of concrete made by replacing the cement with waste glass. In this study the cement was replaced with waste glass as 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% by weight of cement with constant water to binder ratio of 0.5. One mixture of control concrete and five modified concrete mixtures prepared with replacement of cement with waste glass were prepared. Workability, density of hardened concrete, Compressive and tensile strength of control and modified concrete were tested. The experimental test results revealed that, significant improvement was observed at 10% replacement of cement with waste glass on the investigated properties of concrete.
Keywords: Waste Glass; Concrete; Cement replacement; Workability; Tensile strength; Compressive Strength
Abstract: Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is a network which used to optimize low power devices and to operate in or outside of human body to assist variety of medical applications. WBAN contains one or more Body Sensor Units (BSU), one Body Central Unit (BCU), and long range wireless devices. BAN also called body sensor network (BSN) established to make health and medical applications more advanced. WBAN is not only restricted to medical applications but it can also be used as non-medical applications such as Consumer Electronics (CE), personal entertainment and other. For medical applications it plays a key role to help medical professionals and patients for the monitoring of medical situation through intelligent body sensor networks (IBAN). There are many WBAN sensors that can measures different type of physical parameters, such as electrocardiogram (ECG), electromyography (EMB), body temperature, blood pressure, and diabetes of human body. In this paper, there will be a comprehensive survey on wireless body area network applications and the role of these applications in real life. Through these applications of WBAN, sensors are able to predict irregular behavior of body parameters and allow patients or sensor devices to alert medical specialists before any brutal condition.
Keywords: Wireless Body Area Network(WBAN); Body Sensor Network (BSN) Electrocardiogram (ECG); Electromyography (EMB); Intelligent body sensor networks (IBAN)
Abstract: This article presents a study on the properties of Rice Husk Ash (RHA) and its possible utilization as a supplementary cementing material in the construction industry. RHA is usually extracted from the incineration of rice husk. The ash content in the husk is about 15-20% by the weight. Two samples of RHA1 and RHA2 extracted from burning of rice husk. The incineration of rice husk was done for three hours in a drum type burner in the laboratory and then further kept the extracted ash in muffle furnace at a temperature of 350oC for two hours to get maximum amount of silica. The chemical characterization was carried out with the help of the Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS) to check the silica content. It was found that the rice husk ash has 70.38% silicon dioxide, which meets the requirement of ASTM 618-03 for a pozzolanic material. The morphological characteristics were studied through Scanning Electronic Microscopic (SEM) and ash was found to be porous and multi-layered in nature. The X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis proved the existence of non crystalline silica in the ash. The broad diffused peak at 22o in the XRD graph validates the presence of amorphous silica content and the 28-days strength activity index also validated the pozzolanic property of the extracted RHA.
Keywords: Amorphous silica; Strength activity index; XRD; RHA; Cement replacement